I cereali integrali alleati per la salute

Diciamo che non è un segreto, ho decantato spesso le virtù dei cereali integrali esortando ad impiegarli il più possibile in sostituzione di quelli raffinati. Finora i lettori di Latte Rhum e Miele hanno fatto più o meno un atto di fede ma oggi vi svelo che non è una mia fissazione ma una consolidata evidenza scientifica. Integrale è meglio.

Lo dice la Dott.ssa Emilse Calzavara che su Farmacovigilanza parla dei cereali integrali dicendo:

Tra le sostanze non abbastanza rappresentate nei comuni regimi alimentari vi sono i cerali (frumento, segale, riso, avena, orzo) integrali.
Studi epidemiologici dimostrano che i cereali integrali, cioè gli alimenti appena citati consumati integralmente in tutte le loro componenti, possono proteggere dall’insorgenza di obesità, diabete, malattie cardiovascolari e tumori.
Tra i meccanismi alla base dei loro effetti protettivi sono stati identificati: l’aumento del senso di sazietà, la riduzione del tempo di transito intestinale e della intensità della risposta glicemica.
Il mantenimento dell’equilibrio glicemico sarebbe dovuto alla presenza nei cereali integrali di Mg, il quale favorirebbe un aumento della secrezione di insulina.
Altro meccanismo riconosciuto è rappresentato dalle attività antiossidanti e anticancerogene di numerosi composti bioattivi come minerali, oligoelementi, vitamine, carotenoidi e polifenoli che derivano dalla crusca e dal germe di grano. Inoltre, il frumento integrale è una ricca fonte di sostanze donatrici di gruppi metilici (metionina, betaina, colina, inositolo e folati) che possono essere coinvolte nella protezione dell’apparato cardiovascolare e della funzionalità epatica, nella regolazione del metabolismo lipidico e infine nella metilazione del DNA, processo che ha la funzione di proteggere il genoma della cellula.

Quelli che ho consultato e vi riporto sono 88 tra gli studi degli ultimi 8 anni. I cereali integrali sono stati studiati in relazione ad alcune patologie e  paragonati, da soli o in sinergia con altri alimenti quali legumi, ai cereali raffinati ed altri cibi. I risultati sono particolarmente interessanti.

La ricerca medica ha scoperto che i cereali integrali (tra parentesi quadre gli articoli cui le informazioni si riferiscono, che trovate citati in fondo nelle risorse, opportunamente linkati alle fonti):

  • riducono il colesterolo LDL (quello cattivo) [1]
  • riducono  il rischio di patologie cardiovascolari, riducono la pressione e migliorano i casi di ipertensione [1, 13, 16, 21, 24, 35, 40, 47, 48, 60, 71] a confermarlo anche una review di studi di anni precedenti [74]. La riduzione di patologie cardiovascolari è stata verificata anche in soggetti donne affette da diabete mellito [19] e in soggetti affetti da ipercolesterolemia [55]. Alcuni studi sottolineano l’importanza di supportare l’assunzione dei cereali integrali con una dieta appropriata che ad esempio riduca latticini e uova [29]. Le evidenze scientifiche concordano anche dopo una meta-analisi che ha studiato 7 ricerche sul tema [51].
  • incrementano la plasma betaina, sostanze che, per tradurre “in soldoni”, proteggono contro lo stress osmotico, l’aridità, l’elevata salinità, temperatura [1].
  • regolano l’appetito e sono ottimi induttori di senso di sazietà, in particolare le ricerche hanno riguardato la segale [2] orzo mondo e farina integrale [26].
  • regolano i livelli di glucosio [2, 3]
  • regolano i livelli di insulina [3, 36, 50, 53, 77]
  • apportano benessere a stomaco e intestino [3]
  • aiutano a dimagrire, a ridurre/controllare gli strati di adipe, e a controllare il peso [4, 8, 16, 23, 25, 32, 38, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 63, 85, 87] anche nei bambini e ragazzi [7, 15]. Uno studio specifico è stato fatto sui prodotti integrali italiani [20]
  • diminuiscono il rischio di sindrome metabolica e infiammazione cronica, in particolare grazie alla presenza di acido fenolico e fibre contenute nella crusca [5, 20, 41, 48, 50, 53, 73]
  • hanno un effetto altamente benefico nei soggetti diabetici [2, 12, 16, 24, 30, 31, 37, 39, 53, 60, 61, 79]
  • un sondaggio del National Health and Nutrition Examination (1999-2004) ha confermato che il consumo di cereali integrali è associato a un regime alimentare di migliore qualità e in grado di apportare i nutrienti necessari all’alimentazione umana [9] anche se sono da consumare con moderazione i cereali pronti [10]. A questo riguardo una ricerca ha evidenziato come l’amaranto, alimento senza glutine usato per produrre pane e biscotti per celiaci, rappresenti un’ottima e migliorativa alternativa ai prodotti da forno ottenuti da farine bianche, tanto da presentare più elevati valori nutrizionali [11]
  • aumentano la fertilità e le probabilità di rimanere incinta nelle giovani donne e prevengono, inoltre, dalle complicazioni della gravidanza grazie alla concentrazione di hs-CRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein) [14, 24]
  • presentano azione antitumorale [16, 34, 45, 48, 66] anche nei casi di tumore al seno [33]
  • sviluppano un’azione prebiotica [18, 46]
  • riducono il rischio di aterosclerosi [49] e riducono la progressione dell’aterosclerosi in donne in menopausa [65]

Molti studi paragonano i cereali integrali con quelli raffinati, concludendo di diminuire drasticamente i secondi in favore dei primi e di accertarsi che siano effettivamente integrali e cioè che conservino la crusca e il germe, in questi ultimi infatti si conservano numerose sostanze particolarmente importanti per l’organismo umano.

Infatti, dopo aver consultato tutta la sterminata letteratura in materia mi sono chiesta quale fosse il motivo della salubrità dei cereali integrali. La dr.ssa Joanne Slavin, del Department of Food Science and Nutrition presso la University of Minnesota ha scritto un interessante contributo proprio spiegando i meccanismi biologici che rendono i cereali integrali in grado di proteggerci da numerose funzioni del metabolismo umano. E’ uno dei pochi articoli liberamente scaricabili e vi consiglio di leggerlo. In poche parole la dr.ssa Joanne Slavin afferma che la capacità di proteggere da tumori, patologie cardiovascolari, diabete e obesità tipica dei cereali integrali risiede nella loro ricchezza in nutrienti e sostanze fito-chimiche. In primo luogo i cereali integrali sono una fonte concentrata di fibre, oligosaccaridi e amidi resistenti, carboidrati che attraversano l’intestino tenue senza venire digeriti e fermentano pochissimo nella loro permanenza nel tratto gastro-intestinale, producendo acidi grassi a catena corta (SCFA-short-chain fatty acids). Questi ultimi diminuiscono il pH del colon, servono come fonte di energia  per i colonociti (le cellule epiteliali del colon) e possono modificare il livello dei lipidi nel sangue. Questi miglioramenti nell’apparato digerente possono fornire una immuno-protezione che si estende oltre il sistema digestivo. Secondo la dr.ssa Slavin, inoltre, i cereali integrali sono ricchi in antiossidanti, inclusi oligoelementi e composti fenolici che sono già stati collegati alla prevenzione di patologie. Se questo ancora non bastasse, i cereali integrali mediano l’insulina e le risposte del glucosio. Sebbene inferiori carico e indice glicemico siano stati messi in relazione a diabete, obesità, rischio di cancro al colon e al seno questa relazione si è sviluppata qualora vengano assunti carboidrati di pronta assimilazione. Infine, i cereali integrali contengono molti altri composti che possono proteggere da patologie croniche. Questi composti includono i fitati, i fito-estrogeni come lignans, steroli e stanoli vegetali, vitamine e minerali.

Dunque la letterature concorda, integrale è salutare, raffinato è quantomeno pericoloso…

Ma siccome la natura è una fonte meravigliosa e ci ha regalato la varietà, di cereali integrali ce ne sono di diversi tipi, quale scegliere e come?  Giulia Fulghesu ha pubblicato su “Alimentazione naturale dallo svezzamento all’adolescenza. I prodotti biologici sulla tavola del bambino” (Tecniche Nuove, 2001, Milano) una utile schematizzazione dei cereali in relazione al gusto, all’azione energetica sui meridiani secondo la medicina tradizionale cinese e all’azione curativa.

Sapore Azione
Avena piccante stimola il funzionamento di polmoni e intestino crasso. Adatta per le persone tristi
Farro dolce-acido tonifica fegato e cistifellea. Adatto per chi soffre di stipsi e per le persone facilmente affaticabili e nervose
Frumento dolce-acido tonifica milza e pancreas, facilita la digestione. Adatto per le persone deboli e i convalescenti
Grano saraceno amaro tonifica l’energia di cuore e intestino tenue, riscaldante. Adatto per persone deboli e spossate, per i bambini, durante la gravidanza e l’allattamento
Miglio dolce tonifica l’energia di milza, pancreas e stomaco, diuretico, antidispeptico. Utile nelle persone che soffrono di ritenzione idrica e di cattiva digestione
Orzo dolce espettorante, emolliente, calmante. Elimina la mucosità
Riso dolce calmante, astringente, diaforetico, diuretico, emolliente, ipotensivo, depurativo, antiobesità. Adatto per i convalescenti.
Seitan dolce-salato nutriente. Adatto per i convalescenti dalle malattie dell’apparato digerente

Per chi fosse interessato qui su Latte Rhum e Miele abbiamo pubblicato alcune ricette con cereali integrali.

Con le farine di cereali integrali è anche possibile ottenere gustosi latti vegetali fatti in casa.

Risorse:

1. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.
Ross AB, Bruce SJ, Blondel-Lubrano A, Oguey-Araymon S, Beaumont M, Bourgeois A, Nielsen-Moennoz C, Vigo M, Fay LB, Kochhar S, Bibiloni R, Pittet AC, Emady-Azar S, Grathwohl D, Rezzi S.
Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan 28:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 21272402 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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2. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products.
Rosén LA, Ostman EM, Björck IM.
Nutr J. 2011 Jan 19;10:7.
PMID: 21247415 [PubMed – in process] Free Article
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3. Relationship between molecular structure of cereal dietary fiber and health effects: focus on glucose/insulin response and gut health.
Gemen R, de Vries JF, Slavin JL.
Nutr Rev. 2011 Jan;69(1):22-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00357.x.
PMID: 21198632 [PubMed – in process]
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4. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.
O’Neil CE, Zanovec M, Cho SS, Nicklas TA.
Nutr Res. 2010 Dec;30(12):815-22.
PMID: 21147364 [PubMed – in process]
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5. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.
Mateo Anson N, Aura AM, Selinheimo E, Mattila I, Poutanen K, van den Berg R, Havenaar R, Bast A, Haenen GR.
J Nutr. 2011 Jan;141(1):137-43. Epub 2010 Nov 24.
PMID: 21106920 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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6. Rye whole grain and bran intake compared with refined wheat decreases urinary C-peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen in men with prostate cancer.
Landberg R, Andersson SO, Zhang JX, Johansson JE, Stenman UH, Adlercreutz H, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G.
J Nutr. 2010 Dec;140(12):2180-6. Epub 2010 Oct 27.
PMID: 20980650 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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7. Consumption of vegetables, cooked meals, and eating dinner is negatively associated with overweight status in children.
Yannakoulia M, Ntalla I, Papoutsakis C, Farmaki AE, Dedoussis GV.
J Pediatr. 2010 Nov;157(5):815-20. Epub 2010 Jun 17.
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8. Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: the Framingham Heart Study.
McKeown NM, Troy LM, Jacques PF, Hoffmann U, O’Donnell CJ, Fox CS.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;92(5):1165-71. Epub 2010 Sep 29.
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9. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.
O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Zanovec M, Cho S.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Oct;110(10):1461-8.
PMID: 20869484 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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10. Ready-to-eat cereals and the burden of obesity in the context of their nutritional contribution: are all ready-to-eat cereals equally healthy? A systematic review.
Kosti RI, Panagiotakos DB, Zampelas A.
Nutr Res Rev. 2010 Dec;23(2):314-22. Epub 2010 Sep 7.
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11. Gluten-free breads and cookies of raw and popped amaranth flours with attractive technological and nutritional qualities.
de la Barca AM, Rojas-Martínez ME, Islas-Rubio AR, Cabrera-Chávez F.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010 Sep;65(3):241-6.
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12. The role of diet and lifestyle in primary, secondary, and tertiary diabetes prevention: a review of meta-analyses.
Psaltopoulou T, Ilias I, Alevizaki M.
Rev Diabet Stud. 2010 Spring;7(1):26-35. Epub 2010 May 10. Review.
PMID: 20703436 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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13. Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial.
Tighe P, Duthie G, Vaughan N, Brittenden J, Simpson WG, Duthie S, Mutch W, Wahle K, Horgan G, Thies F.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct;92(4):733-40. Epub 2010 Aug 4.
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14. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women.
Gaskins AJ, Mumford SL, Rovner AJ, Zhang C, Chen L, Wactawski-Wende J, Perkins NJ, Schisterman EF; BioCycle Study Group.
J Nutr. 2010 Sep;140(9):1669-76. Epub 2010 Jul 28.
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15. Relationship between whole grain and fiber consumption and body weight measures among 6- to 18-year-olds.
Zanovec M, O’Neil CE, Cho SS, Kleinman RE, Nicklas TA.
J Pediatr. 2010 Oct;157(4):578-83. Epub 2010 Jun 12.
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16. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre?
Fardet A.
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17. Whole grain in children’s diet: intake, food sources and trends.
Alexy U, Zorn C, Kersting M.
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18. Determination of the in vivo prebiotic potential of a maize-based whole grain breakfast cereal: a human feeding study.
Carvalho-Wells AL, Helmolz K, Nodet C, Molzer C, Leonard C, McKevith B, Thielecke F, Jackson KG, Tuohy KM.
Br J Nutr. 2010 Nov;104(9):1353-6. Epub 2010 May 21.
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19. Whole-grain, cereal fiber, bran, and germ intake and the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
He M, van Dam RM, Rimm E, Hu FB, Qi L.
Circulation. 2010 May 25;121(20):2162-8. Epub 2010 May 10.
PMID: 20458012 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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20. Effects of short-term consumption of bread obtained by an old Italian grain variety on lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological variables: an intervention study.
Sofi F, Ghiselli L, Cesari F, Gori AM, Mannini L, Casini A, Vazzana C, Vecchio V, Gensini GF, Abbate R, Benedettelli S.
J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):615-20.
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21. Whole-grain consumption tied to lower blood pressure.
[No authors listed]
Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2010 Feb;28(2):4. No abstract available.
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22. Whole-grain intake correlates among adolescents and young adults: findings from Project EAT.
Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Burgess-Champoux T.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Feb;110(2):230-7.
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23. Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods.
Maki KC, Beiseigel JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Gugger CK, Reeves MS, Farmer MV, Kaden VN, Rains TM.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Feb;110(2):205-14.
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24. Whole and refined grain intakes are related to inflammatory protein concentrations in human plasma.
Masters RC, Liese AD, Haffner SM, Wagenknecht LE, Hanley AJ.
J Nutr. 2010 Mar;140(3):587-94. Epub 2010 Jan 20.
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25. Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber are associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults.
McKeown NM, Yoshida M, Shea MK, Jacques PF, Lichtenstein AH, Rogers G, Booth SL, Saltzman E.
J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1950-5. Epub 2009 Sep 2.
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26. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.
Schroeder N, Gallaher DD, Arndt EA, Marquart L.
Appetite. 2009 Dec;53(3):363-9. Epub 2009 Jul 28.
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27. Whole grains and incident hypertension in men.
Flint AJ, Hu FB, Glynn RJ, Jensen MK, Franz M, Sampson L, Rimm EB.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep;90(3):493-8. Epub 2009 Jul 1.
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28. Wheat.
Shewry PR.
J Exp Bot. 2009;60(6):1537-53. Review.
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29. More whole grains, fewer dairy products and eggs reduce heart failure risk. One extra serving daily of a whole-grain product can reduce your risk for heart failure by seven percent.
[No authors listed]
Duke Med Health News. 2009 Feb;15(2):3. No abstract available.
PMID: 19358322 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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30. Whole grain and legume acceptability among youths with type 1 diabetes.
Gellar L, Rovner AJ, Nansel TR.
Diabetes Educ. 2009 May-Jun;35(3):422-7. Epub 2009 Mar 16.
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31. Whole-grain consumption and transcription factor-7-like 2 ( TCF7L2) rs7903146: gene-diet interaction in modulating type 2 diabetes risk.
Fisher E, Boeing H, Fritsche A, Doering F, Joost HG, Schulze MB.
Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb;101(4):478-81. Epub 2008 Jul 17.
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32. Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber and whole-grain intakes during puberty to the concurrent development of percent body fat and body mass index.
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Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Mar 15;169(6):667-77. Epub 2009 Jan 6.
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33. Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women.
Egeberg R, Olsen A, Loft S, Christensen J, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A.
Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 1;124(3):745-50.
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34. Dietary factors and oral and pharyngeal cancer risk.
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Oral Oncol. 2009 Jun;45(6):461-7. Epub 2008 Nov 5. Review.
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35. Incident heart failure is associated with lower whole-grain intake and greater high-fat dairy and egg intake in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
Nettleton JA, Steffen LM, Loehr LR, Rosamond WD, Folsom AR.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Nov;108(11):1881-7.
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36. Whole-grain cereal products based on a high-fibre barley or oat genotype lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.
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37. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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38. Carbohydrate intake and obesity.
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39. Breakfast cereals and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Physicians’ Health Study I.
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Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Dec;15(12):3039-44.
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40. The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome.
Katcher HI, Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Gillies PJ, Demers LM, Bagshaw DM, Kris-Etherton PM.
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41. Intake of whole grains, refined grains, and cereal fiber measured with 7-d diet records and associations with risk factors for chronic disease.
Newby PK, Maras J, Bakun P, Muller D, Ferrucci L, Tucker KL.
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42. Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity.
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43. Whole-grain consumption, dietary fibre intake and body mass index in the Netherlands cohort study.
van de Vijver LP, van den Bosch LM, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA.
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44. Whole grains and adiposity: little association among British adults.
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45. Whole grains and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.
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46. Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.
Costabile A, Klinder A, Fava F, Napolitano A, Fogliano V, Leonard C, Gibson GR, Tuohy KM.
Br J Nutr. 2008 Jan;99(1):110-20. Epub 2007 Aug 29.
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47. Whole- and refined-grain intakes and the risk of hypertension in women.
Wang L, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Sesso HD.
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48. Whole-grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of noncardiovascular, noncancer death attributed to inflammatory diseases in the Iowa Women’s Health Study.
Jacobs DR Jr, Andersen LF, Blomhoff R.
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49. Whole-grain intake and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a multiethnic cohort: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.
Mellen PB, Liese AD, Tooze JA, Vitolins MZ, Wagenknecht LE, Herrington DM.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1495-502.
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50. Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects.
Andersson A, Tengblad S, Karlström B, Kamal-Eldin A, Landberg R, Basu S, Aman P, Vessby B.
J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1401-7.
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51. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis.
Mellen PB, Walsh TF, Herrington DM.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 May;18(4):283-90. Epub 2007 Apr 20.
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52. Going with the (whole) grain.
Hieronymus L, Geil P.
Diabetes Self Manag. 2007 Mar-Apr;24(2):52-4, 57-8. No abstract available.
PMID: 17410672 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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53. Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study.
Lutsey PL, Jacobs DR Jr, Kori S, Mayer-Davis E, Shea S, Steffen LM, Szklo M, Tracy R.
Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug;98(2):397-405. Epub 2007 Mar 29.
PMID: 17391554 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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54. Whole-grain intake is associated with body mass index in college students.
Rose N, Hosig K, Davy B, Serrano E, Davis L.
J Nutr Educ Behav. 2007 Mar-Apr;39(2):90-4.
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55. Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.
Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep;106(9):1445-9.
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56. What is a whole grain?
[No authors listed]
Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2006 Aug;10(8):10. No abstract available.
PMID: 16829849 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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57. Whole-grain intake cools down inflammation.
Esposito K, Giugliano D.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1440-1; author reply 1441-2. No abstract available.
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58. Whole-grain intake, metabolic syndrome, and mortality in older adults.
Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1439-40; author reply 1441-2. No abstract available.
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59. Whole-grain and fiber intakes and periodontitis risk in men.
Merchant AT, Pitiphat W, Franz M, Joshipura KJ.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1395-400.
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60. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1.
Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, Grønbaek M, Rimm EB.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):275-83. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1443.
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61. Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women.
Qi L, van Dam RM, Liu S, Franz M, Mantzoros C, Hu FB.
Diabetes Care. 2006 Feb;29(2):207-11.
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62. Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults.
Sahyoun NR, Jacques PF, Zhang XL, Juan W, McKeown NM.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):124-31.
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63. Dietary intake of whole and refined grain breakfast cereals and weight gain in men.
Bazzano LA, Song Y, Bubes V, Good CK, Manson JE, Liu S.
Obes Res. 2005 Nov;13(11):1952-60.
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64. Whole-grain intake of British young people aged 4-18 years.
Thane CW, Jones AR, Stephen AM, Seal CJ, Jebb SA.
Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):825-31.
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65. Cereal fiber and whole-grain intake are associated with reduced progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.
Erkkilä AT, Herrington DM, Mozaffarian D, Lichtenstein AH.
Am Heart J. 2005 Jul;150(1):94-101.
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66. Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60,000 women.
Larsson SC, Giovannucci E, Bergkvist L, Wolk A.
Br J Cancer. 2005 May 9;92(9):1803-7.
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67. Prudent diet and the risk of insulin resistance.
Villegas R, Salim A, Flynn A, Perry IJ.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Dec;14(6):334-43.
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68. Nutrition and health education intervention for whole grain foods in the Georgia older Americans nutrition programs.
Ellis J, Johnson MA, Fischer JG, Hargrove JL.
J Nutr Elder. 2005;24(3):67-83.
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69. Whole-grain rye bread consumption by women correlates with plasma alkylresorcinols and increases their concentration compared with low-fiber wheat bread.
Linko AM, Juntunen KS, Mykkänen HM, Adlercreutz H.
J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):580-3.
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70. Whole-grain intake and the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in Tehranian adults.
Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azizi F.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):55-63.
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71. Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.
Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Grønbaek M, Rimm EB.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1492-9.
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72. [Wheat, bread and pasta in Mediterranean diets].
Pérez Rodrigo C, Ruiz Vadillo V.
Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Jun;54(2 Suppl 1):52-8. Review. Spanish.
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73. Whole-grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome: a favorable association in Tehranian adults.
Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azizi F.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;59(3):353-62.
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74. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a review.
Jacobs DR Jr, Gallaher DD.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Nov;6(6):415-23. Review.
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75. [Whole-grain bread in therapeutic diets of health resorts and sanatoria].
Shatniuk LN, Belikov VS.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2004 Jul-Aug;(4):46-7. Russian. No abstract available.
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76. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.
Johnsen NF, Hausner H, Olsen A, Tetens I, Christensen J, Knudsen KE, Overvad K, Tjønneland A.
J Nutr. 2004 Oct;134(10):2691-7.
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77. Whole grain intake and insulin sensitivity: evidence from observational studies.
McKeown NM.
Nutr Rev. 2004 Jul;62(7 Pt 1):286-91. Review.
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78. The influence of whole grain inclusion in pelleted broiler diets on proventricular dilatation and ascites mortality.
Taylor RD, Jones GP.
Br Poult Sci. 2004 Apr;45(2):247-54.
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79. Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes.
Venn BJ, Mann JI.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;58(11):1443-61. Review.
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80. Go with the grain, the whole grain.
[No authors listed]
Harv Womens Health Watch. 2003 Dec;11(4):6. No abstract available.
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81. Who consumes whole grains, and how much?
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Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Feb;62(1):123-7. Review.
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Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB, Rosner B, Colditz G.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):920-7.
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Smith AT, Kuznesof S, Richardson DP, Seal CJ.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 May;62(2):455-67. Review.
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Lang R, Thane CW, Bolton-Smith C, Jebb SA.
Public Health Nutr. 2003 Aug;6(5):479-84.
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85. Whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass and greater insulin sensitivity among adolescents.
Steffen LM, Jacobs DR Jr, Murtaugh MA, Moran A, Steinberger J, Hong CP, Sinaiko AR.
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86. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Anderson JW.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Feb;62(1):135-42. Review.
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Koh-Banerjee P, Rimm EB.
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88. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms.
Slavin J.
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